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An intelligent displacement pumping film system: a new concept for enhancing heavy metal ion removal efficiency from liquid waste

Abstract

A concept of electrochemically switched ion exchange (ESIX) hybrid film system with piston–like proton pumping effect for the removal of heavy metal ions was proposed. Based on this concept, a novel ESIX hybrid film composed of layered alpha zirconium phosphate (α-Zr(HPO4)2; α-ZrP) nanosheets intercalated with a potential-responsive conducting polyaniline (PANI) was developed for the removal of Ni2+ ions from wastewater. It is expected that the space between α-ZrP nanosheets acts as the reservoir for the functional ions while the intercalated PANI works as the potential–sensitive function element for piston–like proton pumping in such ESIX hybrid films. The prepared ESIX hybrid film showed an excellent property of rapid removal of Ni2+ ions from wastewater with a high selectivity. The used film was simply regenerated by only altering the applied potential. The ion pumping effect for the ESIX of Ni2+ ions using this kind of film was proved via XPS analysis. The proposed ESIX hybrid film should have high potential for the removal of Ni2+ ions and/or other heavy metal ions from wastewater in various industrial processes.

Keywords

  • Piston–like proton pumping effects;
  • Electrochemically switched ion exchange;
  • Heavy metal ion;
  • Wastewater

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